How Different Levels of Processing How Different Levels of Processing 3 March Psychology How the change between physical and semantic processing affects the accuracy of word recall Psychology group Siobhan Mackenzie Introduction The level of processing approach, founded by Craik and Lockhart,is a theory of memory in which the accuracy of recall is directly affected by the level of analysis of any given material. The level of processing model of memory was put forward to try and overcome criticism aimed at an earlier research multi store model.
Modifiers[ edit ] Familiaritytransfer-appropriate processingthe self-reference effectand the explicit nature of a stimulus modify the levels-of-processing effect by manipulating mental processing depth factors. Familiarity[ edit ] A stimulus will have a higher recall value if it is highly compatible with preexisting semantic structures Craik, According to semantic network theories, this is because such a stimulus will have many connections to other encoded memories, which are activated based on closeness in semantic network structure.
The familiarity modifier has been tested in implicit memory experiments, where subjects report false memories when presented with related stimuli. For example, auditory stimuli spoken words and sounds have the highest recall value when spoken, and visual stimuli have the highest recall value when a subject is presented with images.
Words are recalled most effectively with data-driven cues word completion if they are read, rather than generated by a subject.
The self-reference effect describes the greater recall capacity for a particular stimulus if it is related semantically to the subject. This can be thought of as a corollary of the familiarity modifier, because stimuli specifically related to an event in a person's life will have widespread activation in that person's semantic network.
During these tasks, the subject does not explicitly recall the stimulus, but the previous stimulus still affects performance. The levels-of-processing effect is only found for explicit memory tests.
One study found that word completion tasks were unaffected by levels of semantic encodings achieved using three words with various levels of meaning in common. Damage to the hippocampus produces an inability to form or retrieve new long-term memories, but the ability to maintain and reproduce a small subset of information over the short term is typically preserved.
However, there is significant room for the modifiers mentioned earlier to affect levels-of-processing to be activated within each sensory mode. Vision[ edit ] Visual input creates the strongest recall value of all senses, and also allows the widest spectrum of levels-of-processing modifiers.
It is also one of the most widely studied. Within visual studies, pictures have been shown to have a greater recall value than words — the picture superiority effect. However, semantic associations have the reverse effect in picture memories appear to be reversed to those in other memories.
When logical details are stressed, rather than physical details, an image's recall value becomes lower. Some studies suggest that auditory weakness is only present for explicit memory direct recallrather than implicit memory.
Within auditory stimuli, semantic analysis produces the highest levels of recall ability for stimuli. Experiments suggest that levels-of-processing on the auditory level is directly correlated with neural activation.
One study suggests that there is a difference in mental processing level due to innate differences between visual and tactile stimuli representations. Subjects had more trouble identifying size difference in visual fields than using tactile feedback. A suggestion for the lower level of size processing in visual fields is that it results from the high variance in viewed object size due to perspective and distance.
Subjects who perform this task have a different recall value on explicit memory tests than subjects who memorize smells using self-chosen methods.
The difference in recall value, however, depends on the subject, and the subject's ability to form images from odors. Attributing verbal attributes to odors has similar effects. Semantic processing of odors e. Neural evidence[ edit ] Several brain imaging studies using positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques have shown that higher levels of processing correlate with more brain activity and activity in different parts of the brain than lower levels.
For example, in a lexical analysis task, subjects showed activity in the left inferior prefrontal cortex only when identifying whether the word represented a living or nonliving object, and not when identifying whether or not the word contained an "a".
Mental disorders[ edit ] Levels-of-processing effects interact in various ways with mental disorders. In particular, levels-of-processing effects appear to be strengthened in patients with age-related memory degradationselectively strengthened in panic disorder patients, unaffected in Alzheimer's disease patients, and reversed in autistic patients.
Age-related memory degradation[ edit ] Main article: Memory and aging Memory encoding strength derived from higher levels-of-processing appears to be conserved despite other losses in memory function with age.
Several studies show that, in older individuals, the ability to process semantically in contrast with non-semantically is improved by this disparity.
Neural imaging studies show decreased left-prefrontal cortex activity when words and images are presented to older subjects than with younger subjects, but roughly equal activity when assessing semantic connections.
In one study, both implicit free recall and explicit memory of emotional aspects memorization of word lists were enhanced by threatening meanings in such patients. Specifically, there is a significantly higher recall value for semantically encoded stimuli over physically encoded stimuli.
In one such experiment, subjects maintained a higher recall value in words chosen by meaning over words selected by numerical order.
In one study, phonological and orthographic processing created higher recall value in word list-recall tests. Learning and Long-term memory. In Fundamentals of cognition Second ed.
Archived from the original pdf on Deeper levels of processing have shown to result in better memory recall than shallower processing. Hyde and Jenkins () findings supported Craik and theory; they found that during different orienting tasks participants recall was affected by the level of processing that the task required.
The levels-of-processing effect, identified by Fergus I. M. Craik and Robert S. Lockhart in , describes memory recall of stimuli as a function of the depth of mental processing.
Deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer-lasting, and stronger memory traces than shallow levels of analysis. derided researchers in machine learning who use purely statistical methods to produce behavior that mimics something in the world, but who don't try .
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Craik and Lockhart () developed a theory in which they discussed the levels of processing. The theory states, the more a word is processed, due to its meaning, the better the word is retained. In our experiment we presented subjects [ ].